Zannetti, M (reprint author), Univ Salerno, Dipartimento Fis ER Caianiello, Via Ponte Don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy.
; Corberi, Federico] Univ Salerno, Dipartimento Fis ER Caianiello, I-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy
; [Zannetti, Marco
; Corberi, Federico] Univ Salerno, CNISM Unita Salerno, I-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy
; [Zannetti, Marco] Chinese Acad Sci, Kavli Inst Theoret Phys, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China
; [Gonnella, Giuseppe] Univ Bari, Dipartimento Fis, I-70126 Bari, Italy
; [Gonnella, Giuseppe] Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy
Condensation of fluctuations is an interesting phenomenon conceptually distinct from condensation on average. One striking feature is that, contrary to what happens on average, condensation of fluctuations may occur even in the absence of interaction. The explanation emerges from the duality between large deviation events in the given system and typical events in a new and appropriately biased system. This phenomenon is investigated in the context of the Gaussian model, chosen as a paradigmatical noninteracting system, before and after an instantaneous temperature quench. It is shown that the bias induces a mean-field-like effective interaction responsible for the condensation on average. Phase diagrams, covering both the equilibrium and the off-equilibrium regimes, are derived for observables representative of generic behaviors.