Highly dynamic tubular structures in cells are responsible for exchanges between organelles. Compared with bacterial invasion, the most affordable and least toxic lipids were found in this study to be gentle and safe exogenous stimuli for the triggering of membrane tubules. A specific lipid system was internalized by NIH3T3 cells. Following cellular uptake, the constructed liposomes traveled towards the nucleus in aggregations and were gradually distributed into moving vesicles and tubules in the cytosol. The triggered tubules proceeded, retreated or fluctuated along the cytoskeleton and were highly dynamic, moving quickly (up to several microns per second), and breaking and fusing frequently. These elongated tubules could also fuse with one another, giving rise to polygonal membrane networks. These lipid systems, with the novel property of accelerating intracellular transport, provide a new paradigm for investigating cellular dynamics.
; GENE DELIVERY
; LIVING CELLS
; CATIONIC LIPOSOMES
National Natural Science foundation of China [21433010, 21320102004, 21273053, 21321063]
; China Postdoctoral Science Foundation [2012M520218]
; National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) [2013YQ160551]