Through the von Neumann interaction followed by post-selection, we can extract not only the eigenvalue of an observable of the measured system but also the weak value. In this post-selected von Neumann measurement, the initial pointer state of the measuring device is assumed to be a fundamental Gaussian wave function. By considering the optical implementation of the post-selected von Neumann measurement, higher-order Gaussian modes can be used. In this paper, we consider the Hermite-Gaussian (HG) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes as pointer states and calculate the average shift of the pointer states of the post-selected von Neumann measurement by assuming the system observable (A) over cap with (A) over cap (2) (I) over cap = and (A) over cap (2) = (A) over cap for an arbitrary interaction strength, where (I) over cap represents the identity operator. Our results show that theHGand LG pointer states for a given coupling direction have advantages and disadvantages over the fundamental Gaussian mode in improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Weexpect that our general treatment of the weak values will be helpful for understanding the connection between weak-and strong-measurement regimes and may be used to propose new experimental setups with higher-order Gaussian beams to investigate further the applications of weak measurement in optical systems such as the optical vortex.
; Matsuo Foundation
; IMS Joint Study Program
; NINS youth collaborative projects
; Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences (CPIS) of Sokendai
; ICRR Joint Research from The University of Tokyo
; JSPS KAKENHI [24654133, 25790068, 25287101]
; IMS Internship project