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On the occurrence of galaxy harassment
Bialas, D; Lisker, T; Olczak, C; Spurzem, R; Kotulla, R; Bialas, D (reprint author), Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
2015
发表期刊ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
卷号576期号:0页码:A103
文章类型Article
摘要Context. Tidal interactions of galaxies in galaxy clusters have been proposed as one potential explanation of the morphology-density relation at low masses. Earlier studies have shown that galaxy harassment is a suitable mechanism for inducing a morphological transformation from low-mass late-type disk galaxies to the abundant early-type galaxies. Aims. The efficiency of tidal transformation is expected to depend strongly on the orbit of a galaxy within the cluster halo. The orbit determines both the strength of the cluster's global tidal field and the probability of encounters with other cluster members. Here we aim to explore these dependencies. Methods. We use a combination of N-body simulation and Monte-Carlo method to study the efficiency of the transformation of late-type galaxies by tidal interactions on different orbits in a galaxy cluster. Additionally, we investigate the effect of an inclination between the disk of the infalling galaxy and its orbital plane. We compare our results to observational data to assess the possible relevance of such transformations for the existing cluster galaxy population. Results. We find that galaxies that entered a cluster from the outskirts are unlikely to be significantly transformed (stellar mass loss <= 6%). Closer to the cluster centre, tidal interactions are a more efficient mechanism (stellar mass loss up to 50%) for producing harassed galaxies. The inclination of the disk can reduce the mass loss significantly, yet it amplifies the thickening of the galaxy disk. Galaxies with smaller sizes on intermediate orbits are nearly unaffected by tidal interactions. The tidal influence on an infalling galaxy and the likelihood that it leads to galaxy harassment make a very stochastical process that depends on the galaxy's specific history. Conclusions. We conclude that harassment is a suitable mechanism that could explain the transformation of at least a fraction of galaxies inside galaxy clusters. However, the transformation would have to start at an early epoch in protocluster environments and continue until today, in order to result in a complete morphological transformation.
关键词Galaxies: Evolution Galaxies: Interactions Galaxies: Dwarf Galaxies: Structure Galaxies: Kinematics And Dynamics Galaxies: Clusters: General
学科领域Astronomy & Astrophysics
资助者IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680]
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201425235
关键词[WOS]DWARF ELLIPTIC GALAXIES ; DIGITAL SKY SURVEY ; STANDARD STELLAR LIBRARY ; N-BODY SIMULATIONS ; VIRGO CLUSTER ; STAR-FORMATION ; EVOLUTIONARY SYNTHESIS ; SPIRAL STRUCTURE ; MODELS ; MORPHOLOGY
收录类别SCI
语种英语
资助者IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; IMPRS for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Silk Road Project at NAOC ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through Chinese Academy of Sciences [2009S 1 - 5] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences through "Qianren" special foreign experts program of China ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) through Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics [GSC 129/1] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; German Research Foundation (DFG) [OL 350/11, SFB 881] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; STScI theory grant [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA through Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-AR-12840.01-A] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; NASA [NAS5-26555] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China [ZDYZ2008 - 2] ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; ZAH, Heidelberg University ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680] ; Volkswagen Foundation [I/80041-043, I/84678/84680]
WOS类目Astronomy & Astrophysics
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文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.itp.ac.cn/handle/311006/21036
专题理论物理所SCI论文
通讯作者Bialas, D (reprint author), Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
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GB/T 7714
Bialas, D,Lisker, T,Olczak, C,et al. On the occurrence of galaxy harassment[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2015,576(0):A103.
APA Bialas, D,Lisker, T,Olczak, C,Spurzem, R,Kotulla, R,&Bialas, D .(2015).On the occurrence of galaxy harassment.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,576(0),A103.
MLA Bialas, D,et al."On the occurrence of galaxy harassment".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 576.0(2015):A103.
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