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Unified first law and the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in the FRW universe
Cai, Rong-Gen; Cao, Li-Ming; Cai, RG , Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Theoret Phys, POB 2735, Beijing 100080, Peoples R China
2007
发表期刊PHYSICAL REVIEW D
ISSN1550-7998
卷号75期号:6页码:-
摘要In this paper we revisit the relation between the Friedmann equations and the first law of thermodynamics. We find that the unified first law first proposed by Hayward to treat the outertrapping horizon of a dynamical black hole can be used to the apparent horizon (a kind of inner trapping horizon in the context of the FRW cosmology) of the FRW universe. We discuss three kinds of gravity theorties: Einstein theory, Lovelock thoery, and scalar-tensor theory. In Einstein theory, the first law of thermodynamics is always satisfied on the apparent horizon. In Lovelock theory, treating the higher derivative terms as an effective energy-momentum tensor, we find that this method can give the same entropy formula for the apparent horizon as that of black hole horizon. This implies that the Clausius relation holds for the Lovelock theory. In scalar-tensor gravity, we find, by using the same procedure, the Clausius relation no longer holds. This indicates that the apparent horizon of the FRW universe in the scalar-tensor gravity corresponds to a system of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We show this point by using the method developed recently by Eling et al. for dealing with the f(R) gravity.
部门归属Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Theoret Phys, Beijing 100080, Peoples R China; Chinese Acad Sci, Grad Sch, Beijing 100039, Peoples R China
关键词Black-hole Dynamics Gravitational Waves General Relativity Gravity Equations Entropy Energy Tensor
学科领域Physics
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收录类别SCI
WOS记录号WOS:000245333600043
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被引频次:236[WOS]   [WOS记录]     [WOS相关记录]
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.itp.ac.cn/handle/311006/5780
专题理论物理所SCI论文
通讯作者Cai, RG , Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Theoret Phys, POB 2735, Beijing 100080, Peoples R China
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Cai, Rong-Gen,Cao, Li-Ming,Cai, RG , Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Theoret Phys, POB 2735, Beijing 100080, Peoples R China. Unified first law and the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in the FRW universe[J]. PHYSICAL REVIEW D,2007,75(6):-.
APA Cai, Rong-Gen,Cao, Li-Ming,&Cai, RG , Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Theoret Phys, POB 2735, Beijing 100080, Peoples R China.(2007).Unified first law and the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in the FRW universe.PHYSICAL REVIEW D,75(6),-.
MLA Cai, Rong-Gen,et al."Unified first law and the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in the FRW universe".PHYSICAL REVIEW D 75.6(2007):-.
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